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Four-Dimensional Cardiac Imaging in Living Embryos via Postacquisition Synchronization of Nongated Slice Sequences

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson

Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10, 050401, 2005.

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Abstract Being able to acquire, visualize, and analyze 3D time series (4D data) from living embryos makes it possible to understand complex dynamic movements at early stages of embryonic development. Despite recent technological breakthroughs in 2D dynamic imaging, confocal microscopes remain quite slow at capturing optical sections at successive depths. However, when the studied motion is periodic—such as for a beating heart—a way to circumvent this problem is to acquire, successively, sets of 2D+time slice sequences at increasing depths over at least one time period and later rearrange them to recover a 3D+time sequence. In other imaging modalities at macroscopic scales, external gating signals, e.g., an electro-cardiogram, have been used to achieve proper synchronization. Since gating signals are either unavailable or cumbersome to acquire in microscopic organisms, we have developed a procedure to reconstruct volumes based solely on the information contained in the image sequences. The central part of the algorithm is a least-squares minimization of an objective criterion that depends on the similarity between the data from neighboring depths. Owing to a wavelet-based multiresolution approach, our method is robust to common confocal microscopy artifacts. We validate the procedure on both simulated data and in vivo measurements from living zebrafish embryos. © 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.2061567

@Article{ liebling.forouhar.ea:05a,
  author = {Michael Liebling and Arian S. Forouhar and Morteza Gharib
    and Scott E. Fraser and Mary E. Dickinson},
  collaboration = {},
  title = {Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via
    postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice
  publisher = {SPIE},
  year = {2005},
  journal = {Journal of Biomedical Optics},
  volume = {10},
  number = {5},
  eid = {054001},
  numpages = {10},
  pages = {054001},
  keywords = {electrocardiography; biological techniques; biology
    computing; zoology; biomechanics; laser beam applications;
    image sequences; image reconstruction; image registration},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?JBO/10/054001/1}

Copyright © 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. This paper was published in the above mentioned journal and is made available as an electronic reprint with permission of SPIE. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.